Mother’s day as celebrated in May
Mother’s day is celebrated when the Sun is transiting the Feminine Tropical sign of Taurus. During this period, it is mid-spring in the Northern Hemisphere; the weather generally is nurturing for life to thrive as the temperature is moderate and consistent of which is in line with the fixed nature of the sign. As a result, nature is bursting with life. The nurturing effect when the Sun is in Taurus is likened to Mothers that bring forth life and is steadfast in providing care and affection to her progeny.
With regard to a probable Astrological reason of why it is celebrated on the second Sunday of May, I think it is logical to celebrate it on that day because the Sun is deep in the middle degrees of the sign and celebrated on a Sunday because the Sun is said to be powerful in its own day. It is said that a planet located in the middle degrees of the sign will have its effect well pronounced and thus this provides a strong spotlight to the qualities of the sign.
In Traditional or Classical Astrology, Venus and the Moon (both are feminine planets) signifies Mothers in the birth chart. Venus signifies the Mother in Daytime charts and the Moon signifies the Mother in Night time charts. When Venus is in Taurus, it is essentially dignified by Domicile, as the Daytime Triplicity ruler of the Earth signs, and has Term/Bound Rulership. On the other hand, the Moon is exalted in Taurus, as the Nighttime Triplicity ruler of the Earth signs, and has Face or Decanate Rulership. With the two feminine Planets associated with Mothers well dignified in the feminine sign of Taurus it is no doubt that is best to celebrate Mother’s “day” when the Sun is transiting this sign.
Father’s day as celebrated in June
It is interesting that Father’s day is celebrated on the Third Sunday of June and most of the time celebrated when the Sun is in Tropical Gemini. Classical Astrology assigns the significations of the Father to Sun and Saturn. Sun signifies the Father in Daytime charts. Saturn, on the other hand, signifies Fathers on Nighttime charts. What made this significant is that both the Sun and Saturn are essentially dignified, in a Masculine sign and without being in Detriment or Fall.
During Father’s day, the Sun is in its own Decanate or Face rulership as the Sun rules the last 10 degrees of Gemini. Within this last 10 degrees of Gemini, Saturn has term rulership and Saturn is the Daytime Triplicity ruler of the Air signs of which Gemini is a part of. Capricorn, wherein the Sun and Saturn has essential dignity, disqualifies it as being chosen as an astrologically appropriate day to celebrate Father’s day since Capricorn is a Feminine sign. Libra and Aquarius on the other hand albeit being Masculine is the Fall and Detriment of the Sun. Likewise, with Aries and Leo, Saturn is in its Fall and Detriment respectively.
Sagittarius is a curious case because the Sun has Daytime triplicity rulership and Saturn has Term and Decanate rulership which gives it an equal number of points for essential dignities with the Sun. However, in the Northern Hemisphere when the Sun is in Gemini, it is about to reach its peak while on the other hand when the Sun is in Sagittarius, the Sun is about to reach its lowest point. So with this, we rather choose a day wherein the Sun is rising to its peak.